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: " ಸ್ಪರ್ಧಾರ್ಥಿ ತಾಣದಲ್ಲಿ ಹೊಸತು " ಉಚಿತ NewsLetterಗಾಗಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಮ್ಮ MAIL ID ನೀಡಿ :

ಈ ತಾಣದಲ್ಲಿನ ಯಾವುದೇ ಆಂಗ್ಲ ಶಬ್ದದ ಅರ್ಥ ತಿಳಿಯದಿದ್ದರೆ ಆ ಶಬ್ದದ ಮೇಲೆ Double Click ಮಾಡಿ

e-ಪತ್ರಿಕೆ ನಿಮ್ಮ ಸ್ವಂತದ್ದು. ಲೇಖನ ಬರೆದು ನಿಮ್ಮ ಜ್ಞಾನ ಹಂಚಿಕೊಳ್ಳಿ ..

ನಿಮ್ಮ (ಕೃತಿಚೌರ್ಯವಲ್ಲದ)ಲೇಖನಗಳನ್ನ ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಕಳಿಸಿ : spardharthi@gmail.com

ಗುಟುಕು ಜ್ಞಾನಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ...

Nov 1, 2009

General Abbreviations and their Expansions

General Abbreviations and their Expansions

A

AA : Anti-Aircraft; Author’s Alterations

AAAS: American Association of Advancement of Science

AAFI: Amateur Athletics Federation of Afro-Asian Games

AAI: Airport Authority of India

AAOU: Asian Association for Open Universities

AAPl: American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin

APSO: Afro-Asian Peoples Solidarity Organisation

AASU: All-Assam Students’ Union

ABC: Audit Bureau of Circulations; American Broadcasting Company; Australian Broadcasting Company

ABM: Anti-Ballistic Missiles

ABSU: All Bodo Students’ Union

ABU: Asian Broadcasting Union

AC: Alternating Current; Ashok Chakra; Ante Christum (Before Christ)

ACAS: Airborne Collision Avoidance System

ACC: Auxiliary Cadet Corps; Air Coordinating Committee

ACD: Asian Co-operation Dialogue

ACL: Access Control List

ACU: Asian Clearing Union

AD: Anno Domini (After Christ)

ADB: Asian Development Bank

ADBS: Advanced Data Broadcast System

ADC: Aide-de-Camp

ADF: Asian Development Fund

ADRs: American Depository Receipts

AEC: Atomic Energy Commission

AERB: Atomic Energy Regulation Board

AF: Audio Frequency

AFC: Asian Football Confederation

AFP: Agence France-Presse

AFSPA: Armed Forces (Special Powers)

AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences

AILTA: All India Lawn Tennis Association

AIMA: All India Management Association

AIMCET: All India Common Entrance Fest for Master of Computer Applications

A1MO: All India Manufacturers Organisation

AIMPLB: All India Muslim Personal Law Board

AINEC: All India Newspaper Editors’ Conference

AIR: All India Radio

AISNEC: All India Small Newspaper Editors’ Conference

AISSF: All India Sikh Students’ Federation

AITUC: All India Trade Union Congress

AIWHA: All India Women Hockey Association

AJT: Advance Jet Trainer

ALGOL: Algorithmic Language

ALH: Advanced Light Helicopter

am: Ante meridiem (before noon)

AMC: Army Medical Corps

AMICE: Associate Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers

AMIE: Associate Member of Institute of Engineers

AMIEE: Associate Member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers

AMU: Aligarh Muslim University; Asian Monetary Union

ANANDI: Area Networking Development Initiative

ANC: African National Congress

ANCA: Alternative Nuclear Command Authority

ANERT: Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology

ANMC-21: Asian Network of Major Cities-21

ANN: Asian News Network

ANZUS: Australia, New Zealand and United States (Three-Nation Defense Pact)

AOC: Air Officer Commanding

AP: Andhra Pradesh; Associated Press

APASL: Asia Pacific Association for Study of Liver

APCTT: Asia and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology

APEC: Asia Pacific. Economic Community

APHLC: All Parties Hill Leaders Conference

APM : Administered Price Mechanism

APPLE: Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment

APPU: Asian Pacific Postal Union

APT: Asia Pacific Tele community

ARC: Administrative Reforms Commission; Agricultural Refinance Corporation

ARDC: Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation

ARF: ASEAN Regional Forum

ARP: Air Raid Precaution

ARPANET: Advanced Research Project Agency Network

ARTRAC: Army Training Command

ASCI: Administrative Staff College of India

ASCON: Army Static Switched Communication Network

ASEAN: Association of South East Asian Nations

ASEM: Asia Europe Meeting

ASI: Archaeological Survey of India

ASIDE: Assistance to States for Infrastructural Development for Exports

ASK : Aaykar Sampark Kendra

ASLV: Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle

ASSOCHAM: Associated Chamber of Commerce and Industry

AT&C Losses: Aggregate Technical & Commercial Losses

AT&T: American Telegraphic and Telephone Co. Ltd.

ATC: Air Traffic Control

ATGM : Anti-Tank Guided Missile

ATM : Automatic Teller Machine

ATR: Action Taken Report

ATS: Anti Tetanus Serum

AU: African Union (formerly Organisation of African Unity)

AVARD: Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development

AVC: Army Veterinary Corps

AVSM: Ati Vishisht Seva Medal

AVTAR: Army Vocational Training and Rehabilitation

AVUT: Association of Victims of Uphaar Tragedy

AWACS: Airborne Warning and Control System

AWWA: Army Wives’ Welfare Association


B


BITS: Birla Institute of Technology & Sciences

BJP: Bharatiya Janata Party

BKKP: Bhartiya Kisan Kamgar Party

B.Com.: Bachelor of Commerce
B.Ed.: Bachelor of Education
B.Pharrn.: Bachelor of Pharmacy
B.Sc.: Bachelor of Science
B2B: Business to Business
B2C: Business to Consumer
BAC: Business Advisory Committee
BAI: Badminton Association of India
BALCO: Bharat Aluminium Company ltd
BARC: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
BBC: British Broadcasting Corporation
BC: Before Christ
BCCI: Board of Control for Cricket in India: Bank of Credit and Commerce International
BCG: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (preventive vaccine for tuberculosis)

BCL: Bachelor of Civil law

BDO: Block Development Officer

BEL: Bharat Electronics Limited

BENELUX: Belgium. Netherlands and Luxembourg

BFA: Boao Forum for Asia

BGA: Blue Green Algae

BHEL: Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.

BHU: Banaras Hindu University

BICP: Bureau of Industrial Costs and Prices

BIFR: Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction

BIMARU: Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh

BIMSTEC: Bangladesh, India, Myanmar. Sri Lanka, Thailand Economic Cooperation.

BIPPA: Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement

BIS: Bureau of Indian Standards~ Bank of International Settlement

BKU: Bharatiya Kisan Union

BLOB: Binary Large Objects

BMW: Bayerische Motoren Warke AG

BOAC: British Overseas Airways Corporation (now British Airways)

BOLT: Build-Own-Lease-Transfer

BP: Blood Pressure

BPE: Bureau of Public Enterprises

BPO: Business Process Outsourcing

bps: bytes per second

BRAI : Broadcast Regulatory Authorities of India

BREAD : Basic Research Education And Development Society

BRIC: Brazil. Russia, India and China

BRO: Border Roads Organisation

BRPSE: Board for Reconstruction of Public Sector Enterprises

BSE: Bombay Stock Exchange

BSES: Bombay Suburban Electricity Supply

BSF: Border Security Force

BSI: Botanical Survey of India

BSNL: Bharat Sanchar Nigam

BSP: Bahujan Samaj Party

BSS: Bharat Sewak Samaj; Standard Specifications.


C


C2C: Consumer to Consumer

CAB: Civil Aeronautics Board; Central Advisory Board

CABE: Central Advisory Board for education

CACCI: Confederation of Asia-Pacific Chambers of Commerce & Industry

CACP: Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices

CADA: Command Area Development Agency

CAG: Comptroller and Auditor-General w India

CAMELS: Capital Adequacy. Asset Quality, Management, Earnings, Liquidity & Systems

CAN: Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

Cantab: Cantabrigienis (of Cambridge)

CAPART: Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology

CAPD: Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

CAPES: Computer-Aided Paperless Examination System

CARD: Centre for Astronomical Research and Development

CARE: Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere

CAS: Chief of the Air Staff; Conditional Access System

CASE: Commission on Alternative Sources of Energy

CASI: Centre for the Advanced Study of India

CAT: Computerised Axial Tomography

CAZRI: Central Arid Zone Research Institute Ltd.

CBDT: Central Board of Direct Taxes

CBEC: Central Board of Excise and British Customs

CBFC: Central Board of Film Certification

CBI: Central Bureau of investigation

CBM: Confidence Building Measures Central CBR: Central Board of Revenue

CBRI: Central Building Research Institute

CBSE: Central Board of Secondary Education

CBT: Children’s Book Trust

CBU: Completely built-up

CCDP: The Committee for Coordination on Disappearances in Punjab.

CCEA: Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs

CCI: Cricket Club of India; Cement Corporation of India

CCP: Cabinet Committee on Prices CCS: Cash Compensatory Support

CD: Civil Defence; Community Development: Certificate of Deposit: Compact Disc

CDAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

C-DAC: Centre for Development of Advanced Computing

CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access

C-DOT: Centre for Development of Telematics

CDRI: Central Drug Research Institute

CD-ROM: Compact Disc-Read Only Memory

CDS: Compulsory Deposit Scheme

CEC: Chief Election Commissioner: Chief Executive Councilor

CECRI: Central Electro Chemical Research institute

CEERI: Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute

CENTO: Central Treaty Organisation

CENVAT: Central Value Added Tax

CEO: Chief Electoral Officer; Chief Executive Officer

CERC: Consumer Education and Research Centre

CFC: Chloro Fluoro Carbon

CFSL: Central Forensic Science Laboratory

CGA: Central Ganga Authority

CGF: Commonwealth Games Federation

CGHS: Central Government Health Scheme

CGI: Common Gateway Interface

CGIAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CGS: Centimetre Gram Second (units of measurement)

CHOGM: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

CHOGRM: Commonwealth Heads of Government Regional Meeting

CIA: Central Intelligence Agency (U.S.A.)

CIB: Credit information Bureau

CICA: Conference on Interaction and confidence-building Measures in Asia

CID: Criminal Investigation Department

CIET: Central Institute of Educational Technology

CIGAR: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

CII: Confederation of Indian Industry

CIIL: Central Institute of Indian Languages

C-in-C: Commander-in-Chief C IS: Commonwealth of Independent States

CISF: Central Industrial Security Force

CITES: Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species

CITU: Centre of Indian Trade Unions

CIWTC: Central Inland Water Transport Corporation

CKD: Completely Knocked Down

CLASP: Child Labour Action and Support Project

CLAWS : Centre for Land Warfare Studies

CLB: Company Law Board

CM: Chief Minister; Common Market

CMA: Coal Mines Authority

CMAG: Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group

CMC: Computer Maintenance Corporation

CMEA: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

CMERI: Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute

CMIE: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy

CMO: Chief Medical Officer

CMP: Common Minimum Programme

CNC: Computerised Numerical Control

CNG: Compressed Natural Gas

CNN: Cable News Network

CNS: Chief of Naval Staff

CO: Commanding Officer

COAS: Chief of Army Staff

COD: Cash On Delivery: Central Ordnance Depot

COFEPOSA: Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Act

COL: Commonwealth of Learning

COMECON: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

COMESA : Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

COMEX: Commonwealth Expedition

COMPS: Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction Centre

CONCORD: Council of North Indian States for Cooperation and Regional Development

COPO: Citizens Organisation for Public Opinion

COPRA: Consumer Protection Act

COPU: Committee on Public Undertakings (of Parliament)

CORDET: Cooperative Rural Development [rust

CPC: Civil Procedure Code

CPCB: Central Pollution Control Board

CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animal\

CPF: Contributory Provident Fund

CPHERI: Central Public health Engineering Research Institute

CPIkNI1: Communist Party of India. (Marxist)

CPI(ML): Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)

CPI: Communist Party of India CPI-IW: Consumer Price Index for industrial Workers

CPMT: Combined Pre-Medical Tests

CPR: Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

CPSU: Communist Party of the Soviet Union

CPU: Committee on Public Undertakings; Commonwealth Press Union

CPWD: Central Public Works Department

CR: Central Railway; Chakravarty Rajagopalachari (Rajaji)

CRIDA: Central Research Institute for Dry-land Agriculture

CRIS: Centre for Railway information systems

CRISIL: Credit Rating Information Services of India

CRPF: Central Reserve Police Force

CRR: Cash Reserve Ratio CRRI: Central Road Research Institute

CRRID: Centre for Research in Rural and Industrial Development

CRY: Child Relief and You

CSCAP: Council for Security Cooperation in Asia Pacific

CSCE: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

CSDS: Centre for the Studs’ of Developing Societies

CSIO: Central Scientific Instruments Organisation

CSIR: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CSIS: Centre for Strategic and International Studies/Centre for Studies in Integrated Sciences

CSMCRI : Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Bhavnagar)

CSO: Central Statistical Organisation

CSSRI: Central Soil Salinity Research Institute

CST: Central Sales lax

CT: Computerised Tomography

CTBT: Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

CTO: Central Telegraph Office; Central Tractor Organisation; Chief Technical Officer

CTV: Colour Television

CV: Curriculum Vitae

CVC: Central Vigilance Commission

CVR: Cockpit Voice Recorder

CVRDE: Combat Vehicles Research Development Establishment

CWC: Central Warehousing Corporation: Chemical Weapons Convention

CWF: Consumer Welfare Fund

CWPC: Central Water and Power Commission

CWPRS: Central Water and Power Research Station

cwt: hundredweight (112 Ibs)


D


D & C: Dilation and Curettage

D Phil: Doctor of Philosophy

DA: Daily Allowance; Dearness Allowance

DAE: Department of Atomic Energy

DANICS: Delhi-Andaman Nicobar Island Civil Services

DAP: Di-Ammonium Phosphate

DAVP: Directorate of Advertising and Visual Publicity

DC: Direct Current; Deputy Commissioner

DCC: District Congress Committee

DCL: Doctor of Civil Law

DD: Doordarshan

DDT: Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (insecticide)

DEAL: Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory

DEG: German Investment and Development Company

DFDR: Digital Flight Data Recorder

DG: Director General. Dei Gratia (By the Grace of God)

DGAD: Directorate-General of Anti-Dumping And Allied Duties

DGCA: Director General of Civil Aviation

DGCEI: Directorate General of Central Excise Intelligence

DGHC: Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council

DGMS: Directorate General of Mines Safety

DGS & D: Directorate General of Supplies and Disposals

DGTD: Directorate General of Technical Development

DHSD: Duplex-High Speed Data Service

DIA : Defence Intelligence Agency

DIC: District industries Centre

DIG: Deputy Inspector General

DIR: Defence of India Rules

DLO: Dead Letter Office (see RLO)

DM: District Magistrate

DMA: Direct Memory Access

DM1: Directorate of Marketing and Inspection

DMK: Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

DMRC: Delhi Metro Rail Corporation

DMRTS: Delhi Metro Rapid Transport System

DNA: Di-oxyribonucleic Acid (biological elements)

DO: Demi-Official

DOARS : Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System

DOD: Department of Ocean Development

DOE: Department of Electronics

DOTS: Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course

DP: Displaced Person

DPBS: Developmental Press Bulletin Service

DPI: Director of Public Instruction

DPSA: Deep Penetration Strike Aircraft

DPT: Diptheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (Vaccine)

DRDO: Defence Research and Development Organisation

DRES: Department of Renewable Energy Sources

DRF: Depreciation Reserve Fund

DRI: Differential Rate of Interest; Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

DSB: Digital Satellite Broadcasting

DSC: Distinguished Service Cross

DSIDC: Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre

DSL: Digital Subscriber Line

DST: Department of Science and Technology

DTAA: Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

DTH: Direct-to-Home

DTS: Digital Theatre System

DVC: Damodar Valley Corporation

DVD: Digital Versatile/Video Disc

DVM: Doctor of Veterinary Medicine

DWT: Dead Weight Tonnes


E


E & 0 E: Errors and Omissions Excepted

EAC: Employment Assistance Centre

EARC: Economic Administrative Reforms Commission

EAS: Employment Assurance Scheme

ECA: Essential Commodities Act

ECAFE: Economic Commission for Asia and Far East (now ESCAP)

ECE: Economic Commission for Europe

ECG: Electrocardiogram

ECGC: Export Credit and Guarantee Corporation

ECHR: European Commission on Human Rights

ECM: European Common Market

ECOSOC: Economic and Social Council (UN)

ECS: Electronic Clearance Service

EDBI: Educational Development Bank of India

EDCIL: Educational Consultants India Ltd.

EDI: Electronic Data Interchange

EDMS: Electronic Document Management System

EEC: European Economic Community

EEC: Electro Encephalogram

EEZ: Exclusive Economic Zone

EFA: Education For All

EFF: Extended Fund Facility

EFTA: European Free Trade Association - eg. exempli gratia (for example)

EGP: Exterior Gateway Protocol

EIL: Engineers India Limited

E-in-C : Engineer-in-Chief

EIS: Executive Information System

ELCINA: Electronics Compone0~ Industries Association

ELJSA: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

ELSS: Equity Linked Saving Scheme

E-mail: Electronic Mailing

EMF: Electro Motive Force

EMG: Electro Myograni

EMS: European Monetary System

EMU: Electric Multiple Unit, European Monetary Union

ENS: Eastern Newspapers Society EOU: Export Oriented Units

EPABX: Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange

EPCG: Export Promotion Capital Goods

EPCH: Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts

EPCJ: Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative

EPF: Employees Provident Fund EPO: Earth Parking Orbit

EPRLF: EJam People’s Revolutionary Liberation Front

EPROM: Erasable, Programmable Read Only Memory

EPZ: Export Processing Zone ER: Eastern Railway ERM: Exchange Rate Mechanism

ERNET: Educational and Research Network

ERS: European Remote Sensing (satellite)

ESA: European Space Agency

ESC: Electronics and Computer Software Export Promotion Council

ESCAP: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

ESIC: Employees’ State Insurance Corporation

ESMA: Essential Services Maintenance Act

ESP: Extra Sensory Perception

EST: Eastern Standard Time

Est: Established

ETA: Euskadi to Askalasuma (a terrorist organisation in Spain)

etc: etcetera (and other)

ETT: Embryo Transfer Technology

ETTDC: Electronics Trade and Technology Development Corporation

ETV: Educational Television

EURATOM: European Atomic Community

EUTELSAT: European Telecommunications Satellite

EVM: Electronic Voting Machine

EVR: Electro video Recording

EW: East-West

F


FACT: Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore limited

FACTS : Fingerprint Analysis and Criminal Tracing System

FAO: Food and Agriculture Organisation (of United Nations)

FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation (of I’SA)

FBTR: Fast Breeder Test Reactor

FBW: Fly-By-Wire

FCI: Food Corporation of India

FCNRA: Foreign Currency Non-Resident Account

FCRA: Foreign Contribution Regulation Act

FDI: Foreign Direct Investment

FEDEX: Federal Express

FEMA: Foreign Exchange Management

FERA: Foreign Exchange Regulation Act

FICCI: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry .

FIDE: Federation International D’Eches (International Chess Federation)

FIEO: Federation of Indian Exports Organisations

FIFA: International Football Federation

FIH: International Hockey Federation

FII: Foreign Institutional Investors

FIPB: Foreign Investment Promotion Board

FIPC: Foreign Investment Promotion Council

FIR: First Information Report

FIRE: Fully Integrated Robotised Engine

FLAG: Fibre-optic Link Around the Globe

FM: Field Marshal

FMCT: Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty

FMD: Foot and Mouth Disease f.o.b.: free on board for free on rail

FORE: Foundation for Organisational Research and Education

FPS: Foot-Pound-Second (Units of measurement); Fare Price, Shop

FRCP: Fellow of Royal College of Physicians

FRCS: Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons

FRGS: Fellow of Royal Geographical Society

FRN: Floating Rate Note

FRS: Fellow of Royal Society

FTII: Films and. Television institute 01 India

FTP : File Transfer Protocol

FTS: Foreign Travel Scheme

FTU: Free Trade Union

FTZ: Free Trade Zone

G


GAAP: Generally Accepted Accounting Practices

GAEL: Global Alliance for The Elimination of Leprosy

GAIL: Gas Authority of India Limited

GAP: Ganga Action Plan

GATE: Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering

GATT: General Agreement on Tariff and Trade

GB: Great Britain

GCC: Gulf Cooperation Council

GCF: Greatest Common Factor

GCM: Greatest Common Measure; General Court Martial

GCMMF : Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation

GDI: Gender-related Development Index

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

GDR: German Democratic Republic (East Germany); Global Depository Receipt

GEDIS: Gateway Electronic Data Interchange Services

GEF: Global Environment Facility

GEM: Gender Empowerment Measure

GHC: Gorkha lull Council

GHQ: General Headquarters

GI: Government Issue; General Issue

GIAS: Gateway Internet Access Services

GIC: General Insurance Corporation

GIDC: Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation

GIEC: Global Indian Entrepreneurs Conference

GIS: Global Information System

GIST: Graphics and Intelligence-based Script Technology

GLOBE: Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment

GM: General Manager. General Motors

GMAT: Graduate Management Admission Test

GMDSS: Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

GMPS: Global Mobile Personnel Communications System

GMRT: Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

GMT: Greenwich Mean Time

GMUNET: Global Mega University Net

GNLF: Gorkha National Liberation Front

GNP: Gross National Product

GOC: General Officer Commanding

GOI: Government of India

GOP: Grand Old Party

Govt: Government

GPF: General Provident Fund; Gandhi Peace Foundation

GPO: General Post Office

GPRS: General Pocket Radio System

GRAM: Geo Reference ‘ Area Management

GRE: Graduate Record Examination

GRT: Gross Rated Tonnage

GSI: Geological Survey of India

GSLV: Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

GSM: Global System for Mobile Communication

GSP: Generalised System of Preferences

GSTP: Global System of Trade Practices

GTICL : Gas Transportation & infrastructure Co. Ltd.

H


HAI: Health Action International

HAL: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

HC: House of Commons; High Court

HCF: Highest Common Factor

HDI: Human Development Index

HDML: Hyper Devices Markup Language

HE: His Excellency; Her Excellency

HEH: His/Her Exalted Highness

HEMRL: High Energy Materials Research Laboratory

HESSI: High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

HF: High Frequency

HG: His/Her Grace

HH: Her Highness; His Highness; His Holiness

HHEC: Handicrafts and Handloom Exports Corporation

HISA: Hero Indian Sports Academy

HITEC: Hyderabad Information Technology Engineering Consultancy

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HLC: Humanitarian Law Commission (Red Cross)

HM: Her Majesty. His Majesty

HMI: Himalayan Mountaineering Institute

IIMT: Hindustan Machine Tools; Head Micro Telephone

HMY: His Master’s Voice

HP: Harmonic Progression: Himachal Pradesh

hp: horse power

HPU: Hill People’s Union

HQ: Headquarters

Hr: Hour

HRD: Human Resource Development

HRH: His Royal Highness: Her Royal Highness

HSD: High Speed Diesel

HSL: Hindustan Steel Limited

HSRRSS: high Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Satellite

HSTS: High Speed Tram System

HT: high Tension

HTCG : High Technology Cooperation Group

HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language

HTR: High Temperature Reactor

http: hypertext Transfer Protocol

HUDCO: Housing and Urban Development Corporation

HV: High Voltage

HVNET: High Speed VSAF Network

HZL: Hindustan Zinc Limited

I


I & B: Information and Broadcasting

IA: Indian Airlines

IAAF: International Amateur Athletic Federation

IAAS: Indian Audit and Accounts Service

IAC: Indian Airlines Corporation

IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency

IAF: Indian Air Force

IAMC: Indian Army Medical Corps

IAMR: Institute of Applied Manpower Research

IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute

IAS: Indian Administrative Service

IASRI: Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute

IATA: International Air Transport Association

IATP: Income Adjusted to Total Population

ib, ibid: Ibidem (in the same place)

IBEF: India Brand Equity Fund

IBM: International Business Machines: Indian Bureau of Mines

IBRD: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)

ICAA: international Civil Airports Association

ICADR: The International Centre for Alternate Dispute Resolution

ICAI: Institute of Chartered Accountants of India

ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organisation

ICAR: Indian Council of Agricultural Research

ICBL: International Campaign to Ban Landmines

ICBM: Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile

ICC: International Chamber of Commerce; International Control Commission;

International Cricket Council

ICCR: Indian Council for Cultural Relations

ICCS: International Commission of Control and Supervision

ICCW: Indian Council of Child Welfare

ICDS: Integrated Child Development Scheme

ICE: InfoTech Communications And Entertainment

ICFTU: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ICHR: Indian Council of Historical Research

ICICI: Industrial Credit and investr~1ent Corporation of India

ICJ: International Court of Justice’

ICMR: Indian Council of Medical Research

ICOR: International Capital Output Ratio

ICPD: International Conference on Population and Development

ICRA: Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India

ICRC: International Committee of Red Cross

ICRIER: Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations

ICRISAT: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

ICS: Indian Civil Service

ICSI: Institute of Company Secretaries of India

ICSSR: Indian Council of social Sciences Research

ICSW: Indian Council of Social Welfare

ICW: International Council of Women

ICWA: Indian Council of World Affairs

IDA: International Development Agencies.

IDBI: Industrial Development Bank of India

IDC: Industrial Development Corporation

IDD: International Direct Dialing

IDE: Integrated deice Electronics

IDPL: Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited

IDRC: International Development Research Centre

IDSA: Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis

ie: id est (that is)

IELTS: International English Language Testing System

IES: Indian Economic Service

IETE: Institution of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineers

IFA: Indian Football Association

IFAD: International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFC: Industrial Finance Corporation: international Finance Corporation

IFCI: Industrial Finance Corporation of India

IFCS: International Federation of Company Secretaries

IFFCO: Indian Farmers Fertilisers Corporation Limited

IFFI: International Film Festival of India

IFP: Inkatha Freedom Party

IFRI: Indian Forest Research Institute

IFS: Indian Foreign Service; Indian Forest Service

IFTU: International Federation of Trade Unions

IFWJ: Indian Federation of Working Journalists

IG: Inspector-General

IGCAR: Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research

IGIA: Indira Gandhi International Airport

IGMDP: Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.

IGNCA: Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts

IGNFA: Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy

IGNOU: Indira Gandhi National Open University

IGNP: Indira Gandhi Nahar Pariyojana

IHF: Indian Hockey Federation

IIAS: Indian institute of Advanced Studies

IIFT: Indian Institute of Foreign Trade

IIIT: Indian Institute of Information Technology

TIMC: Indian Institute of Mass Communications

IIP: Indian Institute of Petroleum

IIPA: Indian Institute of Public Administration

IIPA: International Intellectual Property Alliance

IIRS: Indian Institute of Remote Sensing

IISS: International Institute of Strategic Studies

IIT: Indian Institute of Technology

ILA: International Law Association

ILO: International Labour Organisation

ILS: Instrument Landing System

IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol

IMC: Indian Medical Council

IMDT: Illegal Migrants Determination by Tribunal Act

IMEWS: Integrated Missile Early Warning Satellites

IMF: International Monetary Fund

IMPPA: Indian Motion Picture Producers’ Association

IMPRES: Integrated Multi-train Passenger Reservation System

IMS: Indian Medical Service

IMT: Institute of Management and Technology

IMY: Indira Mahila Yojana

IN: Indian Navy

INA: Indian National Army; Iraqi News Agency

INFINET: Indian Financial Network

INFLIBNET: Information and Library Network Centre

INL: Indian National League

INMARSAT: International Maritime Satellite Organisation

INMAS: Institute of Nuclear Medicines and Allied Sciences

INPEX: Indian National Philatelic Exhibition

INS: Indian Newspaper Society: Indian Navy Ship

INSA: Indian National Science Academy

INSAT: Indian National Satellite

INTACFI: Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage

INTELEX: International Teleprinter Exchange

INTELSAT: International Telecommunication Satellite Consortium

INTERPOL: International Criminal Police Organisation

INTUC: Indian National Trade Union Congress

IOA: Indian Olympic Association

IOC: International Olympic Committee; Indian Oil Corporation

IOCOM: Indian Ocean Commonwealth

[OR-ARC: Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation

IOSCO: International Organisation of Securities Commission

IOU: I owe you

IP: Internet Protocol

IPBA: Inter-Pacific Bar Association

IPC: Indian Penal Code

IPCL: Indian Petro-chemicals Corporation Limited

IPEC: International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

IPKF: Indian Peace Keeping Force

IPO: Initial Public Offering

IPR: Intellectual Property Rights

IPS: Indian Police Service

IPSA: International Peace & Security Advancement

IPU: International Parliamentary Union IQ: Intelligence Quotient

IRA: Irish Republican Army; Insurance Regulatory Authority

IRBM: Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile

IRC: International Red Cross

IRCI: International Reconstruction Corporation of India -

IRCON: Indian Railway Construction Company

IRCS: International Red Cross Society

IRDA: Insurance Regulatory Development Authority

IRDP: Integrated Rural Development Programme

IREDA: Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency

IRNA: Iranian News Agency

IRRI: International Rice Research Institute

IRS: Indian Remote Sensing (satellite)

IRSE: Indian Railway Service of Engineers

ISAF: International Security Assistance Force

ISB: Indian School of Business

ISBA: International Sea-Bed Authority

ISBN: International Standard l3ook Number

ISC: Indian Science Congress

ISCON: Indian Steel Construction Company

ISD: International Subscriber Dialing

ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network

ISI: Indian Standards Institute; Inter-services Intelligence (of Pakistan)

ISKCON: International Society for Krishna Consciousness

ISO: International Organisation for Standardisation

ISP: Internet Service Provider

ISRO: Indian Space Research Organisation

ISS: Islamic Sevak Sangh

IST: Indian Standard Time

ISTRAC: ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Centre

ITBP: Indo-Tibetan Border Police

ITDC: India Tourism Development Corporation

ITES: Infotech Enabled Services

ITI: Indian Telephone Industries; Industrial Training Institute

ITO: Income Tax Officer; International Trade Organisation

ITPO: Indian Trade Promotion Oganisation

ITR: Interim Test Range

ITU: International Telecommunication Union

IUCD: Intra-Uterine contraceptive device

IUML: Indian Union Muslim League

IUPEP: Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme

IVF: In-Vitro Fertilisation

IWAI: Inland Waterways Authority of India

TWDP: Integrated Watershed Development Programme

IWRS: Isolated Word Re-organisation System

IYC: Indian Youth Congress

J


J&K: Jammu and Kashmir

JAAC: Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council

JANAM: Jan Natya Manch

JBRI: Japanese Bond Research Institute

JCC: Junior Chamber of Commerce

JCO: Junior Commissioned Officer

JEIH: Jamaat-e-Tslami Hind

JIPMER: Jawaharlal lnstittite of Postgraduate1 Medical Education & Research (Pondicherry)

JKLF: Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front

JMM: Jhatkund Mukthi Morcha

JNU: Jawaharlal Nehru University

JP: Janatha Party, Jayprakash Narayan; Justice of Peace

JPC: Joint Parliamentary Committee

JRC: Junior Red Cross

JRY: Jawahar Rozgar Yojana

JVM: Janata Vidyarthi Morcha

JVP: Janata Vimukthi Peramuna


K


KANU: Kenya African National Union

KAVAL: Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Agra and Lucknow

KBE: Knight of British Empire

KC: King’s Counsel

KCP: Karnataka Congress Party

Kg: Kilogram

KG: Kindergarten

KGB: Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty (Committee for State Security)

KKK: Ku-Klux-Klan

KMBY: Khetihar Mazdoor Bima Yojana

KMT: Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of Taiwan)

KRC: Konkan Railway Corporation

KVA: Kilo-Volt-Ampere

KVIC: Khadi and Village Industries Commission

KVS: Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan

Kw: Kilowatt


L


L: 50 (in Roman numerals)

LAC: Line of Actual Control

LAN: Local Area Network

LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

lbw: leg, before wicket (in cricket)

LCA: Light combat Aircraft

LCD: Liquid Crystal Display; Least Common Denominator

LCM: Lowest Common Multiple.

LDC: Least Developed Countries; Lower Division Clerk

LED: Light Emitting Diode

LEE: Licentiate in Electrical Engineering

LERMS: Liberalised Exchange Rate Management Scheme

LES: Lunar Escape System

LH: Left hand

LIC: Life Insurance Corporation

LIPS: Language Independent Programme Sub-titles

LL D: Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws)

LLB: Legum Baccalareous (Bachelor of Laws)

LLM: Master of Laws

LM: Lunar Module

LME: Licentiate in Mechanical Engineering

LMG: Light Machine Gun

LNG: Liquefied Natural Gas

LOAC: Line of Actual Control

Loc cit: loco citato (at the p~ace1uoted)

LoC: Line of Conti~o1.

LPG: Liquefied Petroleum Gas

LPT: Licentiate in Printing technology

LSA: Lok Shakti Abhiyan

LSD: dextro-lysergic acid diethylamide(hallucinogen)

Lt. Col: Lieutenant Colonel

Lt: Lieutenant

LTC: Leave Travel Concession

Ltd: Limited

LTTE: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.

LZ: Landing Zone

M


M.Ed.: Master of Education

M. Sc.: Master of Science

M: 1000 (in Roman numerals)

M.A.: Master of Arts

MAC: Multi-Agency Centre -

MAD: Mutual Assured Destruction

MA!: Multilateral Agreement on Investment’

MAI: Manufacturers’ Association of Information Technology

MAMC: Mining and Allied Machinery Corporation

MASER: Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

MAT: Management Aptitude Test, Minimum Alternate Tax

MBA: Master of Business Administration

MBBS: Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

MBFC: Mutual Benefit Financial Company

MBRS: Multi-Barrel Rocket System

MBT: Main Battle Tank

MC: Master of Ceremonies; Municipal Commissioner;

Municipal Committee; Medical Certificate

MCA: Monetary Compensatory Account; Master of Computer Application

MCC: Marylebone Cricket Club; Missile Control Centre

MCD: Municipal Corporation of Delhi

MCI: Medical Council of India

MCOCA: Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act

MD: Managing Director; Doctor of Medicine

MDA: Market Development Assistance MDMA : Multi Disciplinary Monitoring Agency

MDMK: Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

MDS: Master of Dental Surgery

ME: Mechanical Engineer

MEA: Ministry of External Affairs

MECON: Metallurgical and Engineering Consultants

MES: Military Engineering Service

MFA: Multi-Fibre Agreement

MFN: Most Favoured Nation

MI: Military Intelligence

MIBOR: Mumbai Inter-Bank Offered Rate

MIC: Methyle isocyanate

MIGA: Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

MISA: Maintenance of Internal Security Act

MLA: Member of Legislative Assembly: Money Laundering Act

MLC: Member of Legislative Council

MMDS: Multi-Channel Microwave Distribution System

MMMF: Money Market Mutual Fund

MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service

MMT: Million Metric Tonnes

MMTC: Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation

MNAMS: Member of the National Academy of Medical Sciences

MNC: Multinational Corporation

MNF: Mizo National Front

MNNA : Major Non-NATO Ally

MO: Money Order; Medical Officer

MODEM: Modulator demodulator

MODVAT: Modified Value Added Tax

MONEX: Monsoon Experiment

MOU: Memorandum of Understanding

MOX: Mixed Oxide Fuel

MP: Member of Parliament; Military Police; Madhya Pradesh

MPA: Master of Public Administration

MPF: Multinational Protection. Force

MPFI: Multiple Fuel Infection System

mpg: mules per gallon

mph: miles per hour

MPLADS: Member of Parliament Local Aiea Development Scheme

mps: metres per second

mps: metres per second

MQM: Mohajir Quami Movement (of Pakistan)

MRA: Moral Re-armament

MRAS: Member of the Royal Academy Sciences

MRCP: Member of Royal College of Physicians

MRCS: Member of Royal College of Surgeons

MRCVS: Member of Royal College of ~Veterinary Surgeons

MRD: Movement for Restoration of Democracy (in Pakistan)

MRTPC: Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission

MRTS: Mass Rapid Transit System

MRVC: Mumbai Railway Vikas Corporation

MSS: Manuscripts

MSW: Master of Social Work

MSY: Mahila Sainriddhi Yojna

MTCR: Missile Technology Control Regime

MTV: Music Television

MVC: Maha Vir Chakra

N

N & Q: Notes and Queries

N’CYP: National Centre of Films for Children and Young People-

NAAI: National Airport Authority of India

NABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

NAC : National Advisory Council

NAECL: National Authority on Elimination of Child Labour

NAFED: National Agricultural Co- operative Marketing Federation of India Ltd.

NAFTA: North America Free Trade Agreement

NALCO: National Aluminium Company Limited

NAM: Non-Aligned Movement

NAMS: National Academy of Medical Science

NAPP: Narora Atomic Power Plant

NARO: National Amnesty and Redemption Organisation

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (of U.S.A.)

NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation

NASSCOM: National Association of Software and Service Companies

NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

NAV: Net Asset Value

NAWO: National Alliance for Women

NAYE: National Alliance of Young Entrepreneurs

NB: nota bene (mark well)

NBA: Narmada Bachao Andolan

NBCC: National Building Construction Corporation

NBDB: National Book Development Board

NBFC: Non-banking Finance Company

NBT: National Book Trust

NCA: National Commission on Agriculture

NCAER: National Council of Applied Economic Research

NCB: Narcotics Control Board

NCBC: National Commission for Backward Classes

NCBE: National Confederation of Bank Employees

NCC: National Cadet Corps

NCDC: National Coal Development Corporation

NCERT: National Council of Educational Research and Training

NCL: National Centre for Labour

NCNA: New China News Agency

NCO: Non-Commissioned Officer

NCRB: National Capital Region Board

NCSC & ST: National Commission for Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes .

NCST: National Committee of Science and Technology:

National Conference on Science and Technologies

NCTE: National Council for Teachers Education

NCW: National Commission on Women

NDA: National Defence Academy; National Democratic Alliance

NDC: National Development Council

NDDB: National Dairy Development Board

NDFB: National Democratic Front of Bodoland

NDMA : National Disaster Management Authority

NDMC: New Delhi Municipal Committee

NDRI: National Dairy Research institute

NDTF: National Democratic Teachers Front

NE: North-East

NEC: North-Eastern Council

NEDC: National Economic Development Council

NEEM: National Elementary Education Mission

NEERI: National Environmental Engineering Research Institute

NEFA: North East Frontier Agency

NEHU: North-Eastern Hill University

NEP: New Education Policy

NER: North Eastern Railway

NES: National Extension Service

NEW: Net Economic Welfare

NF: National Front

NFAI: National Film Archives of India

NFC: Nuclear Fuel Complex

NFDC: National Film Development Corporation

NFIR: National Federation of Indian Railwaymen

NFR: Northeast Frontier Railway

NFSIT: The National Venture Fund for Software and IT Industries

NGO: Non-Governmental Organisation

NGRI: National Geophysical Research Institute

NHAI: National Highway Authority of India

NHB: National Housing Bank

NHPC: National Hydro-electric Power Corporation

NHRC: National Human Rights Commission

NIB: National investment Bank

NIC: National Integration Council; National Informatics Centre

NICD: National Institute of Communicable Diseases

NICO: New Information and Communication Order

NID: National Institute of Designs. (Ahmedabad)

NIDC: National Industrial Development Corporation

NIDS: National Immunisation Days

NIEPA: National Institute for Educational Planning & Administration

NIESBUD: National Institute of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development

NIFT: National Institute of Fashion Technology

NII: National Institute of Immunology; National Information infrastructure

NIIT: National Institute of Information Technology

NIM: Nehru Institute of Mountaineering

NIMHANS: National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences

NIO: National Institute of Oceanography

NIOT: National Institute of Ocean Technology

NIPFP: National institute of Public Finance and Policy

NIS: Netaji Subhash Institute of Sports

NISTADS: National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies

NIV: National Institute of Virology

NLF: National Liberation Front (Vietnam)

NLM: National literacy Mission

NLTA: National Lawn Tennis Association

NMCC: National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council

NMD: National Missile Defence

NMDC: National Mineral Development Corporation

NMEP: National Malaria Eradication Programme

NMNH: National Museum of Natural History

NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

NNP: National Nutrition Policy

NOC: No Objection Certificate

non seq: now sequiture (it does not follow)

NP: Notary Public

NPC: National Productivity Council

NPCC: National Projects Construction Corporation

NPCL: Nuclear Power Corporation of India

NPP: National Perspective Plan

NPT: Non-Proliferation Treaty

NR: Northern Railway

NRA: National Reconstruction Army

NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (of US); National Register of Citizens

NRDC: National Research Development Corporation

NREGP: National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme

NRF: National Renewable Fund

NRHM : National Rural Health Mission

NRI: Non-Resident Indian

NRSA: National Remote Sensing Agency

NRT : Net Registered Tonnes

NRY: Nehru Rozgar Yojana

NS: North-South

NSA: National Security Act; National Security Agency (of US)

NSAP: National Social Assistance Programme

NSC: National Security Council; National Saving Certificate

NSCI: National Sports Club of India

NSCN: National Socialist Council of Nagaland

NSD: National School of Drama

NSEI: National Stock Exchange of India

NSG: National Security Guards

NSIC: National Small Industries Corporation

NSS: National Service Scheme

NSSO: National Sample Survey Organisation

NSUI: National Students Union of India

NTC: National Textile Corporation

NTP: National Temperature and Pressure

NTPC: National Thermal Power Corporation

NTS: National Testing Service

NUJ: National Union of Journalists

NVF: National Volunteer Force

NWDA: National Water Development Agency

NWGP: National Working Group on Power

NWRC: National Water Resources Council

O


O & M: Organisation & Methods

OAPEC: Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

OAS: Organisation of American States

OBC: Other Backward Classes

OBE: Officer (or the Order) of the British Empire

OC: Officer Commanding

OCS: Overseas Communication Service

ODA: Official Development Assistance

OECD: Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development

OECF: Overseas Economic Cooperative Fund

OEEC: Organisation for European Economic Cooperation

OGL: Open General Licence

OIC: Organisation of Islamic Conference

0IDB: Oil India Development Board

OIGS: On Government of India Service

OIL: Oil India Limited

OIP : Office of the Iraq Programme

OK: orl korrect (all correct, all right)

ONGC: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

op at: opero citato (in the work cited)

OPCW : Organisation for the Prohibition f Chemical Weapons

OPEC: Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries

OPECNA: OPEC News Agency

OPF: Ordnance Parachute Factory

OPV: Oral Polio Vaccine

ORT: Oral Rehydration Therapy

OSCE: Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe

OTCEI: Over the Counter Exchange of India

OTS: Officers’ Training School (military)

OXFAM: Oxford Committee For Famine Relief

OYT: Own Your Telephone

OYW: Own Your Wagon

P


P&K: Phosphate & Potash

P&T: Posts & Telegraphs

PAC: Public Accounts Committee;

Provincial Armed Constabulary; Political Affairs Committee

PAL: Phase Alternative Line

PAN: Permanent Account Number

PATA: Pacific Asia Travel Association

PBS: Public Broadcasting Service

PBX: Private Branch Exchange (telephone)

PC: Privy Council; Petty Cash

PCC: Pradesh Congress Committee

PCI: Press Council of India

PCM: Public Code Modulation

PCRA : Petroleum Conservation Research Association

PCS: Provincial Civil Service

PDA: Personal Digital Assistant; Preventive Detention Act

PDPA: People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan

PBS: Public Distribution System

PEC: Projects and Equipment Corporation

PEN: Poets, Editors and Novelists Association

PERT: Project Evaluation and Review Technique

PESB: Public Enterprises Selection Board

PETA: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

PFC: Power Finance Corporation

PFRDA: Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority

PGA: Parliamentarians for Global Action

PHC: Primary Health Centre

PHDCCI: Progress, Harmony and Development Chambers of Commerce & Industry

PIA: Pakistan International Airways

PIB: Press Information Bureau

PIL: Public Interest Litigation

PIM: Personal Information Management

PIN-Code: Postal Index Number Code

PIO: Persons of Indian Origin

PLO: Palestine Liberation Organisation

PLOTE: People’s Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam

PLR: Prime Lending Rates

pm: post meridiem (after noon); post mortem

PM: Prime Minister

PMG: Post Master General

PML: Pakistan Muslim League.

PMRTS: Personal Mobile Radio Trunking Services

PMUPEP: Prime Minister Urban Poverty Eradication Programme

PO: Post Office; Postal Order

P0A: Programme of Action; Power of Attorney

P0K: Pakistan Occupied Kashmir

POTA: Prevention of Terrorism Act

POW: Prisoner of War

PP: Particular Person; Public-Prosecutor

PPF: Planet Protection Fund

PPP: Pakistan People’s Party; Purchasing Power Parity

PRCL : Pipavav Railway Corporation Ltd.

Pro tem: pro tempore (for the time being)

PRO: Public Relations Officer

PROLOG: Programming Logic

Prox: proximo (in the next month)

PS: Postscript; Personal Secretary; Private Secretary

PSC: Public Service Commission

PSLV: Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

PT: Physical Training

PTA: Parent-Teacher Association; Pilotless Target Aircraft

PTBT: Partial Test Ban Treaty

PTI: Press Trust of India

PTO: Please Turn Over

PUCL: People’s Union of Civil Liberties

PUDR: The People’s Union for Democratic Rights - Explosive

PVC: Param Vir Chakra; Poly Vinyl Chloride

PVSM: Param Vishisht Seva Medal

PWD: Public Works Department

PWG: People’s War Group

Q


QCT: Quality Council of India

QED: quod erat demonstrandum, (Which was to-be-proved).

QEF: quod erat faciendum (which was to be done)

QEI: quod erat inveniendum (which was to be found)

QMG: Quarter Master General

QMT: Quantitative Management Technique

QR: Quantitative Restriction

Qr: Quarter

qv: quod vide (which see)

R


R&D: Research and Development

RABMN: Remote Area Business Message Network

RAD: Research And Development

RADAR: Radio Detecting and Ranging

RAF: Royal Air Force (of UK); Rapid Action Force (India)

RAM: Random Access Memory

RAW: Research and Analysis Wing

RAX: Random Access Exchange

RBI: Reserve Bank of India

RBS : Risk Based Supervision

RCC: Reinforced Cement Concrete

RCI: Rehabilitation Council of India

RD: Refer to Drawer

RDA: Rural Development Agency

RDSO: Research, Designs and Standard Organisation

REACH: Rehabilitate, Educate and Support Street Children

REC: Rural Electrification Corporation; Regional Engineering College

REM: Rapid Eye Movement

REP: Replenishment Export Permit

RI: Rigorous Imprisonment

RIA: Radio Immuno Assay

RIMC: Rashtriya Indian Military College

RIP: Requiescat in Peace (May he or she rest in peace)

RIS: Research & Information System for the non-aligned & other developing Countries.

RITA: Regional Trade & Investment Agreement

RITES: Rail India Technical and Economic Services

RJD: Rashtriya Janta Dal

RJP: Rashtriya Janta Party

RLEGS: Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Scheme

RLM: Rashtriya Loktantrik Morcha

RLO: Returned Letter Office (formerly DLO—Dead Letter Office)

RMO: Resident Medical Officer

RMS: Railway Mail Service

RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

RNO: Resident Naval Officer

ROBERT: Rocket Borne Emergency Radio Transmitter

ROM: Read Only Memory

ROO : Rules of Origin

RPF: Railway Protection Force

RPM: Revolutions Per Minute

RPV: Remote-controlled Pilotless Vehicle

RRB: Rural Regional Bank

RRC: Regional Reactor Centre

RSE: Renewable Source of Energy

RSP: Rourkela Steel Plant; Revolutionary Socialist Party

RSS: Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh

RSVP: Respondez sil vous plait (please reply)

RTA: Railway Territorial Army

RTC: Round Table Conference

RTG: Radio-isotope Thermo-electric Generator

RTIA: Regional Trade & Investment Area

S


SAARC: South Asian Association fir Regional Cooperation

SAC: Space Application Centre; Science Advisory Council

SACEPS: South Asia Centre for Policy Studies

SACODIL: SAARC Consortium of Open & Distance Learning.

SAD: Shiromani Akali Dal

SADCC: South African Development Coordination Council

SADF: South Asian Development Fund

SAEC: South Asian Economic Community

SAFMA: South Asia Free Media Association

SAFTA: South-Asian Free Trade Agreement

SAHR: South Asians Human Rights Forum

SAI: Sports Authority of India

SAIDC: South African Industrial Development Corporation.

SAIL: Steel Authority of India Limited

SALT: Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty

SAM: Surface-to-Air Missile

SAPTA: South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement

SARF: South Asia Regional Fund

SARS: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

SAS: Subordinate Accounts Service. $mall Astronomy Satellite

SASEC: South Asian Sub-regional Economic Co-operation

SASER: Sound Amplification by stimulated Emission of Radiation

SAT: Scholastic Aptitude Test

SATTE: South Asia Travel and Tourism Exchange

SAVE: SAARC Audio Visual Exchange

SC: Scheduled Castes; Space Commission; Supreme Court; Security Council

SCBA: Supreme Court Bar Association

SCI: Shipping Corporation of India

SCOPE: Standing Committee of Public Enterprises

SCUBA: Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus

SDI: Strategic Defence Initiative

SDO: Sub-Divisional Officer

SDR: Special Drawing Rights

SEARCH : Society for Environmental Awareness. Rehabilitation for Child and Handicapped

SEATO: South Fast Asia Treaty Organisation

SEBC: Socially and Educationally Backward

SEBI: Securities Exchange Board of India

SEMFEX: Self Employment for Ex-servicemen

SEMIBOMBLA: Scheme of the Economists for Monetary Immobilisation through Bond Medallions and Blocked Accounts

SENSEX: Sensitive Index (of share price)

SEPUR: Self-Employment Programme for the Urban Poor

SER: South Eastern Railway

SEWA: Self-Employed Women’s Association

SEZ: Special Economic Zone

SFC: State Financial Corporation’ Strategic Forces Command

SF1: Students Federation of India

SF10: Serious Fraud Investigation Office

SGPC: Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee

SHAR: Sriharikota Tracking Station

SHCIL: Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd.

SIA: Singapore Airlines

SIAM : Society’ for Indian Automobile Manufacturers

SIDBI: Small Industries Development Bank of India

SIDC: State Industrial Development Corporation

SIEMA: Southern India Engineering Manufacturers Association

SIF: Stock Index Futures

SIMI: Students Islamic Movement of India

SIPRI: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

SIT: Special Investigation Team

SITA: Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act

SITE: Satellite Instructional Television Experiment

SLBM: Sea-Launch Ballistic Missile

SLFP: Sri Lanka Freedom Party

SLR: Statutory Liquidity Ratio

SLV: Satellite Launch Vehicle

SMART: Small Missions for Advanced Research & Technology

SMS: Short Messaging Service

SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

SNIPES: Society of National Institutes for Physical Education and Sports

SO: Special Officer; Section Officer

SOS: Save Our Souls—distress signal

SP: Superintendent of Police

SPCA : Society for the Prevention of to Animals

SPE: Special Police Establishment

SPG: Special Protection Group

SPIC MACAY: Society for the of Indian Classical Music & Culture

SR: Southern Railway; Supplementary Rules

SRAM: Short Range Attack Missile

SRI: Systems Research Institute

SRO: Statutory Rules and Orders

SSA : Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan

SSB: Service Selection Board

SSC: Staff Selection Commission

SSI : Supplemental Security Income; Small Scale Industry

SSM: Surface to Surface Missile

SST: Supersonic Transport

ST: Scheduled Tribes

STARS: Satellite Tracking and Ranging Station

START: Strategic Arms Reduction Talks

STC: State Trading Corporation

STD: Subscriber Trunk Dialing (telephone); Sexually Transmitted Disease

STEP: Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project

STF: Special Trust Fund; Special Task Force

STPI: Software Technology Parks of India

SUNFED: Special United Nations Fund br Economic Development

SUV: Sports Utility Vehicle

SVP: Saturated Vapour Pressure

SW: South-West

SWAPO: South-West Africa People Organisation

SWIFT: Society for World-wide International Financial Transactions,

SWOT: Strength,- Weakness, opportunities, Threats

SYL: Sutlej-Yamuna Link (canaL)

T


TA: Travelling Allowance; Territorial Army

TAB: Tetanus anti-bacilli (for inoculation against tetanus)

TAC: Technical Advisory Committee

TACDE: Tactics and Aircraft Development Establishment

TAFE: Technical and Further Education

TAFTA: Trans-Atlantic Free Travel Agreement

TAPS: Tarapur Atomic Power Station

TAX: Trunk Automatic Exchange

TB: Tubercle bacillus (Tuberculosis); Torpedo Boat

TC: Transfer Certificate; Ticket Collector; Trusteeship Council

TCAS: Tactical Collision Avoidance System

TCIL: Telecommunication Consultants India Limited

TDA: Trade Development Authority

TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access

TDP: Telugu Desam Party

TDS: Tax-Deduction at Source

TDSAT: Telcom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

TELCO: Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company

TELEX: Teleprinter Exchange

TERI: Tata Energy Research Institute

TERLS: Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station

TFAI: Trade Fair Authority of India

TFT: Thin Film Transistor

TGS: Trade Guarantee Scheme

THDP: Tehri Hydro Development Project

THI: Temperature Humidity Index

TIFAC: Technology and Information Forecasting and Assessment Council

TIFR: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

TISCO: Tata Iron and Steel Company

TMC: Tamil Maanila Congress

TMO: Telegraph Money Order

TNC: Transnational Corporation

TNT: Tri nitro toluene (explosive)

TNV: Tripura National Volunteers

TOEFL: Test of English as a Foreign language

TPDS: Targeted Public Distribution System

TRACT: Transportable Remote Area Communications Terminal

TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

TRIFED: Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd.

TRIMS: Trade Related Investment Measures

TRIPS: Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights

TRP: Television Rating Points

TRYSEM: National Scheme of Training for Rural Youth for Self-Employment

TTCI: Tea Trading Corporation of India

TTD: Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam

TTE: Travelling Ticket Examiner

TULF: Tamil United Liberation Front

TV: Television

TWA: Trans-World Airlines (of U.S.A.)

U


UAD: United Akali Dal

UAE: United Arab Emirates

UAPA: Unlawful Activities (Prevention Act)

UAR: United Arab Republic

UAV: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UC: Upper Case (capital letter)

UDC: Upper Division Clerk

UDF: United Democratic Front

UDI: Unilateral Declaration Independence

UFO: Unidentified Flying Object

UGC: University Grants Commission

UHF: Ultra High Frequency

UK: United Kingdom

ULF: United Legislature Front

ULFA: United Liberation Front of Assam

ULMS: Undersea Long-range Missile System

ult: ultimo (in last month)

UN: United Nations

UNAEC: United Nations Atomic Energy Commission

UNCED: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

IJNCHS: United Nations Commission on Human Settlements

UNCIP: United Nations Commission for India & Pakistan

UNCITRAL: United Nations Conference on International Trade Law

UNCLOS: United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCNRSE: United Nations Conference for New and Renewable Sources of Energy

UNCOD: United Nations Conference on Desertification

UNCSTD: United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Development

UNCTAD: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDC: United Nations Disarmament Commission

UNDOF: United Nations Disengagement Observer Force

UNDP: United Nations Development Programme

UNEP: United Nations Env4~nme::tProgramme

UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

UNFCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFPA: United Nations Fund for Population Activities

UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNI: United News of India

UNIC: United Nations information Centre

UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Fund

UNIDO: United Nations Industrial Development Organisation

UNIIMOG: United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

UNIKOM: United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission

UNISCA: United States Indo Commercial Alliance

UNISPACE: United Nations Conference on Peaceful Uses of Space

UNITA: Union for the Total Independence of Angola

UNMOVIC: United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission

UNP: United National Party (of Sri Lanka)

UNPROFOR: United Nations’ Protection Force

UNSC: United Nations Security Council

UNSCOM: UN Special Commission

UNTAC: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia

UNTAG: United Nations Transition Assistance Group

UPA: United Progressive Alliance

UPC: Under Postal Certificate

UPS: Uninterrupted Power Supply

UPSC: Union Public Service Commission

UPU: Universal Postal Union

USA: United States of America

USAID: United States Agency for International Development

USIS: United States Information Service

USO: Udaipur Solar Observatory

USOC: United States Olympic Committee

USP: Unique Selling Proposition

UTI: Unit Trust of India

V


V: Five (Roman numeral)

VABAL: Value Based Advanced Licensing

VAM: Virtual Area Network

VAT: Value-Added Tax

VC: Vice-Chancellor; Victoria Cross; Venture Capital

VCR: Video Cassette Recorder

VCRC: Vector Control Research Centre

VD: Venereal Disease

VDIS: Voluntary Disclosure Income Scheme

VECC: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

VHF: Very High Frequency

VHP: Vishwa Hindu Parishad

VHRR: Very High Resolution Radiometre

VHS: Video Home System

VIP: Very Important Person

VIRUS: Vital Information Resources Under Siege

VOA: Voice of America

VPP: Value Payable Post

VRDE: Vehicles Research and Development Establishment

VRS: Voluntary Retirement Scheme

VSAT: Very Small Aperture Terminal

VSNL: Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited

VSP: Visakhapatnam Steel Plant

VSSC: Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre

VTEC: Variable Value Timing and Lift Electronic Control

VTR: Video Tape Recorder

W


WADA: World Anti-Doping Agency

WAP: Wireless Application Protocol

WAPCOS: Water and Power Development Consultancy Services (India) Limited

WASME: World Assembly of Small and Medium Enterprises

WAY: World Assembly of Youth

WCAR: World Conference Against

WCD: World Commission of Dams

WCO: World Customs Organisation

WEF: World Economic Forum/World Environment Forum

WFP: World Food Programme

WFS: World Food Summit

WFTU: World Federation of Trade Unions

WHO: World Health Organisation

WILL: Wireless in Local Loop

WIFO: World Intellectual Property Organisation

WMA: Ways & Means Advances

WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction

WMO: World Meteorological Organisation

WOMFC: World Mining Environment Congress

WOP: Warrant of Precedence

WP: Word Processor

WPI: Wholesale Price Index

WR: Western Railway

WSIS: World Summit on Information Society

WTO: World Tourism Organisation; and Trade Organisation

WWF: World Wildlife Fund WWW: World Wide Web

WYS1WYG: What You See You Get

X


XLRI: Xavier’s Labour Relations Institute.

X-mas: Christmas

Y


YMCA: Young Men’s Christian Association

YWCA: Young Women’s Christian Association

Z


ZANU: Zimbabwe African National Union

ZAPU: Zimbabwe African People’s Union

ZBB: Zero-Based Budgeting

ZETA: Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly

ZOPFAN: Zone Of Peace, Freedom And Neutrality

ZPG: Zero Population Growth

ZS: Zoological Society

ZSI: Zoological Survey of India

ZUPO: Zimbabwe United People’s Organisation

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